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14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

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14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 30, 2011 11:44 pm

Head; Ita Yemoo, Ife; 12th – 15th century C.E.Terra-cotta;

H: 9 1/8 in. (23 cm)National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Nigeria, 79.R.7






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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 30, 2011 11:44 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 30, 2011 11:45 pm





Ife head, Ife, 12th-14th century. Copyright The Trustees of the British Museum.Copper head. Found at Wunmonije Compound, Ife, Nigeria. Late 14th-early16th century



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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 1:53 pm


Wunmonije Compound, Ife, Head with Crown, 14th-early 15th century, C.E. Copper alloy



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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 1:55 pm


Torso of a king, Ife Wunmonije, brass, early 14th century.


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:02 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:05 pm





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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:06 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:12 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:12 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:14 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sun May 01, 2011 2:19 pm

In 1910 Leo Frobenius, a German explorer, saw Ife’s superbly modelled terracotta sculptures and a single brass head. He thought they were too good to have been made by Africans and concluded that the sculptors must have been survivors of Atlantis, the submerged island of Greek legend. Along with expressions of excitement, there were echoes of this reaction in 1938 when Europeans first saw a cache of newly unearthed brass heads
.



In the 15th century metal casting in Ife stopped abruptly. This was when the Portuguese arrived on West Africa’s coast. The neighbouring Kingdom of Benin supplanted inland Ife as a trading centre and the metal casters may have moved to where they were more likely to find patrons. The best of Benin’s famous, more stylised bronzes were made between the 15th and 18th centuries.


http://www.economist.com/node/16941215?story_id=E1_TGJQTNTV

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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Feb 25, 2012 5:15 pm

trying to see what, if any, effect the inquisition had on west african kingdoms during the 15th-18th centuries.



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Report on Ife art

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:10 pm

Kings, Crowns, and Rights of Succession: Obalufon Arts at Ife and Other Yoruba Centers





Suzanne Preston Blier 
The life-size copper mask from Ife (Fig. 1), the ancient religious center of the Yoruba in southwestern Nigeria (Fig. 2), is one of the most familiar, yet enigmatic, of all African works in metal.1 It was first published in 1937 by the late king (Oni) of Ife, Adesoji Aderemi, in the journal Nigeria.2 The king identified the mask at the time as representing Obalufon II, a legendary early ruler of Ife who is credited with the invention of brass-casting at that center. This life-size mask was said by the king to have been kept on an altar in the Omirin room of the royal palace at Ife ever since its manufacture.3 A near flawless casting in ninety-nine percent pure copper,4 it is one of the most beautiful and technically accomplished of all works from ancient Ife. 

Ekpo Eyo and Frank Willett date the mask to the twelfth through fifteenth centuries A.D.5 Like related Ife brass and copper heads (Figs. 3, 4), the Obalufon mask is a work of extraordinary naturalism. Except for the characteristic Ife-style almond-shaped eyes and the distinct stylization of the ears, the face of the mask shows striking physiognomic accuracy. The naturalism of this work is heightened by its fully life-size proportions, and by the fact that it was apparently intended to incorporate an attached beard, for holes have been placed around the mouth and chin areas so that a beard could be inserted. 

1 This paper was previously presented at a symposium in honor of the late Douglas Fraser held at Columbia University on April 15-16, 1983. The analysis shares Fraser's concerns with some of the more difficult questions in Nigerian art history. As with many studies of historical art traditions in Africa, the ultimate answers may never be known. The suggestions presented here, if in part conjectural, provide an alternative to the hypotheses about Ife art currently espoused. These findings have the additional advantage of conforming more closely with Ife oral traditions, royal succession rites, and religious beliefs. Future fieldwork on Yoruba Obalufon ceremonies and art undoubtedly will add further insight into traditions discussed here. 

My interest in Yoruba coronation arts began in 1969-1971, when I was living in the Yoruba royal city of Save (in the Republic of Benin). At that time, considerable discussion focused on the selection and installation of a new Save king. My more recent interest in the topic began after viewing the exhibit, "The Treasures of Ancient Nigeria," organized in 1980 by Michael Kan and the Detroit Institute of Arts and curated by Ekpo Eyo, Director of Nigerian National Museums. As a result of that exhibit, the 
Obalufon mask and other Ife works came to this country for the first time. 

The present essay would not have been possible without the help of a number of scholars. I wish to thank Rowland Abiodun, Richard Brilliant, Henry and Margaret Drewal, Kate Ezra, William Fagg, Jeff Hammer, Jack Pemberton, and Frank Willett, all of whom offered critical comment and shared their information and ideas. Shirley Glazer carefully checked my sources; Sarah Travis made the drawings and maps. Michael Kan helped secure photographs. My thanks to all of them. Plates 1, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 14 were photographed by Dirk Bakker. 

2 Aderami, the Oni of Ife, "Notes on the City of Ife," Nigeria, xiixx, 1937, 3. Among the first of the Ife works to reach the West were those brought to Europe by the British colonial governor Gilbert Thomas Carter. According to Samuel Johnson (p. 647) "three of those national and ancestral works of art known as the 'Ife marbles' "were given to Carter in 1896 by Adelekan, the then recently crowned king of Ife. Johnson explains that the king gave them to Governor Carter in an effort to gain a positive 
decision concerning the resettlement of Modakeke residents outside the city (see nn. 68 and 69). 

3Kenneth C. Murray, "Nigerian Bronzes: Works from Ife," Antiquity, 
xv, 1941, 73; Willett, 29. 
4 Ancient copper exploitation took place in Niger, Mauritania, Mali, Sudan, and Zaire (Thurstan Shaw, Nigeria: Its Archaeology and Early History, London, 1978, 72). O. Werner and F. Willett have published the results of spectographic analyses of several Ife castings ("The Composition of Brasses from Ife and Benin," Archaeometry, xvii, 1975, 141-163), which suggest, however, that the metal may have come from Lower Saxony (in the Harz region) in Europe, where mines producing related ores were being 
worked during the 12th and 13th centuries. (Corresponding evidence of copper being transported by caravan across the Sahara in the 11th or 12th century [1090 A.D. ? 1081 has been found in Mauritania; Theodore Monod, "Majabat al-Koubra," Bulletin de lInstitut Francais dAfrique Noire, xxvi, 1964, 1394-1402). During this period, the African Berbers (Almoravid and Almohad Moslems) controlled much of the Western Sahara, the Mediterranean, and Spain. Presumably it was through them that 
metals were traded into this area, either by way of Spain (which, as R. W. Southern notes [The Making of the Middle Ages, New Haven, 1953, 42], had trade contracts at this time with eastern Germany) or through Sicily (and the Holy Roman Empire) both of which benefited from trade ties with the Moslem world. 

s P. 93. D.H. Jones suggests ("Problems of African Chronology," Journal of African History, 11, 2, 1970: 160-176) that the average king's reign in similar African societies was probably thirteen years. Forty-eight kings


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:24 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:27 pm



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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:30 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:35 pm


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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:36 pm

[url=http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/artbulletin/Art Bulletin Vol 67 No 3 Blier.pdf]http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/artbulletin/Art%20Bulletin%20Vol%2067%20No%203%20Blier.pdf[/url]

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Re: 14th to 16th century Ife art, nigeria

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